Congress amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) with the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1990 and, in 1994, with the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which provided the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with regulatory authority over dietary supplements and specifically established “standards with respect to dietary supplements.” Together, the NLEA and DSHEA established “a new category of food products—specifically, dietary supplements—that have unique safety, labeling, manufacturing, and other related standards.” Kroessler v. CVS Health Corp., 977 F.3d 803, 808 (9th Cir. 2020). With Congress finding consumers “should be empowered to make choices” about potential benefits of dietary supplements, DSHEA implemented major shifts in dietary supplement regulation, including exempting “dietary supplements” from FDA drug approval and FDA food additive approval, 21 U.S.C. §321(g)(1), and expressly permitting dietary supplement labels to make “structure/function claims.” 21 U.S.C. §343(r)(6)(A).